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The structural element of a house that supports the roof bearing walls (usually perimeter walls) and usually is supported by the soil.
A type of foundation that uses cables that are tightened to squeeze the concrete and hold it in compression. In Arizona, this is usually a thick slab with slightly thickened edges.
A type of foundation with three separate elements. A spread footing that bears on the soil. The stem wall sits on top of the footing. The floor slab, which floats independently and is really not technically part of the foundation.
A deeper soil layer that can support the weight of the structure.
A condition of the foundation where it no longer supports the house, usually by excessive movement as a result of soil settlement or heave.
The process of supporting a foundation by installing deep elements of support to bypass unstable soil conditions to reach down to more stable soil strata for permanent support.
An underpinning device the reaches depth by applying a twisting (torque) motion to a helix, allowing it to screw down to depth.
The maximum level of twisting that can be applied to a helical pile before it fails.
An underpinning device that reaches depth by pushing off the footing using hydraulic rams.
An underpinning device that reaches depth by percussion drilling and simultaneous grouting out the drill tip.
The shallowest depth a pile can be stopped without fear of water reaching it and affecting its bearing capacity.
The process of recording relative floor elevations (height) using a water level or similar instrument. Even though the floors may not be connected to the foundation, it is a good indicator of foundation movement.
Minor damage that can be unsightly but serious. Small cracks in drywall, small cracks in concrete floors, small cracks in stucco or bricks.
Medium damage manifested in doors and windows out of square to the point of not functioning properly.
Serious damage to the supporting elements of the house.
A wet mixture of soil, sand or aggregates combined with cement, fly ash or lime.
Injection of stiff grout into deep soil to dandify and compact it.
Injection of slippery grout under a slab to hydraulically raise.
The injection of runny grout to fill a void under a slab without raising it.
The injection of thin grout to fill rock like voids deep in the soil.
Raising a foundation to the highest practical maximum. The level at which the structure performs the best. Not necessarily plumb level.
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